“[The] major issues affecting a global city are increasingly less local or even national – they are international. This is mainly because it is an international profile that the major cities in the world are competing for – in order to attract investment. And the investment comes from anywhere there are financial reservoirs waiting for lucrative channels. The collapse of Enro or Barings affects pockets of people in any number of countries. No, the politics of production I am pointing to in our new global cities issue from specific cultural practices.

“I would even suggest cultural here rather than social; because the social suggests to me that there is a precultural level of relations between people. Whereas I would suggest all relations are culturally informed and all the individuals in those relations are, to quote the French social theorist, Cornelius Castoriadis, the products of various institutions. There are neither people nor any relations as such. So, in my thinking, the cultural is more foundational that the social; it is cultural production that produces the various competing forms of models for sociality.”

Graham Ward, “Christian Political Practice and the Global City,” 2005