The New Apostles
By Len Hjalmarson

    What does a modern Apostle look like? Is apostleship about authority? Or does it look more like fathering?

    This article does not address the question of whether apostleship continues in our time, nor does it address the necessity of the "five-fold" ministry. Rather, these things are assumed. Paul gives no indication in Ephesians that a time will come when the five fold leadership gifts will no longer be needed.

    The intention of this article is to contribute to discernment between the true and the false apostolic, and to move toward an understanding of the function and form of the apostolic gift in our day.


Poised at the millennium, we confront two critical challenges: how to address deep problems for which hierarchical leadership alone is insufficient and how to harness the intelligence and spirit of people at all levels of an organization to continually build and share knowledge. Our responses may lead us, ironically, to a future based on more ancient -- and more natural -- ways of organizing: communities of diverse and effective leaders who empower their organizations to learn with head, heart, and hand. -- Peter Senge, Author of The Fifth Discipline.

    I have always thought it unfortunate that so many books on leadership and gifting start at the top. Maybe this is inevitable: such books are usually written by gifted leaders, and like all of us, they are preoccupied with their own function!

    At the same time leaders recognize that they have a catalytic place in the body. They are initiators, fire-starters and trail blazers. They are wise enough to recognize that without them the church will not move and grow and be equipped to respond effectively to the need of the moment.

    The problem is that many discussions on gifting and apostleship neglect the context of leadership: the healthy and functioning body of Christ. In so doing, they also neglect the headship of the LORD. There is one body, and one head, and the function of authority in the body of Christ is to rightly connect individuals to the head so that the whole body may be built up (Eph. 4).

    The point is this: God is renewing the foundation of the church in our day, not so that leaders can lead, but so that all the people of God can be released into the world to serve Him and to offer their lives as sacrifice to Him. It's not about leadership: it's about all of us realizing the stature of Christ (Eph. 4: 13).

    Consider for a moment the current status of the church in North America: we are on the decline. What we are currently doing is not working. There are fewer believers this year in North America as a percentage of the population than there were last year. Furthermore, there are far fewer candidates for "the ministry." The kingdom growth crisis is also a leadership crisis.

    It is leaders who bear the greatest responsibility in this failure. Leaders are often failing to hear from the Lord or failing to lead in the right direction, or they are more concerned with their own status and popularity than with the kingdom of God. The crisis we face in the church is a crisis of leadership.

    True leadership must be for the benefit of the followers, not the enrichment of the leaders.
Robert Townsend – Up the Organization

    How strange that at the same time as we hear much about apostolic renewal, most of what we see is business as usual. "If we always do what we've always done, we'll always get what we've always got." We desperately need change, and we need leaders who aren't afraid to move in new directions. Apostles break new ground: many of the new leaders will be apostolic.

    Thank God for crises. Crises get us out of our comfort zones and force us to our knees. Every crisis is an opportunity. We have a new opportunity to turn to the Lord in dependence. We become open to change. Graham Cooke writes that, "When we become a prototype (pioneering church) and the Holy Spirit begins to move in power, we will also come into a different level of warfare." (A Divine Confrontation).

    "In times of profound change, the learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists." Al Rogers

"Spiritual formation is the number one issue for the church. It doesn't immediately present itself as the major concern. But the loss of mission that plagues many churches is a direct result of not being shaped by the heart of God. The fact that we focus on creating members instead of missionaries grows from our lack of being captured by the heart of God for people."
Reggie McNeal,
author of A Work of Heart

The Character of Apostolic Ministry

    Although this discussion is about apostolic ministry, that isn't the primary interest of the Lord. The apostles are not the center of God's plan: His kingdom is at the center. The Lord wants to create and release an empowered people. (We'll talk more about this when we consider Nehemiah's calling.)

    If we don't get this right, if we don't properly place apostles in the context of the building of the kingdom, then we also don't get the question of authority right. We all know that in our day authority is greatly abused. In some cases the abuses are obvious and result in great wounding. In many cases the abuses are less obvious: leaders who use their authority to build their own status and kingdoms generally do so in the name of the Lord. Many of these leaders are tremendously popular. In his recent book "Soul Survivor" Philip Yancey comments,

    From the inside, as a journalist, I have watched a disturbing pattern in what we do to religious leaders today. We reward them with applause, fame, enticing new contracts, and a flurry of requests for speaking engagements and media appearances. We push our pastors to function as psychotherapists, orators, priests, and chief executive officers. When a leader shows unusual ability, we dangle the temptation of a radio show or TV program, coplete with a fund-raising machine to float the organization. In short, we in the church slavishly copy the secular model of media hype and corporate growth. I wonder how much more effective our spiritual leaders would be if we encouraged them to take Monday as a day of silence for reflection, meditation and personal study? P. 167

    How sad that the "success" of modern ministry is hand in glove with the death of the church in our culture. Too many modern "apostles" are more interested in building their own kingdoms than in building God's kingdom; the end result is fortress style churches which are almost irrelevant to the culture around them. Unfortunately, this is nothing new. In 1948 AW Tozer commented that, "Promoting self under the guise of promoting Christ is currently so common as to excite little notice."

Countless Christians have told me that after trying this model of church, that recipe of revival, riding this wave and catching the spirit that way, attending this “life changing seminar” and that “anointed conference” their lives and their churches are still dreadfully the same, and they are prepared to give up or just hold on for dear life.
   Wolfgang Simson – Houses that Change the World

    As we consider the context of apostolic ministry, therefore, the first point I want to make is that it has NOTHING to do with popularity! Our modern marketing machines work extremely well, and those who can "tickle" itching ears and generally make us feel good about ourselves and our self-focused lifestyle will always draw a crowd.

    Instead of the popular preaching circuit with its accolades, book tables and power point presentations, Paul characterizes apostolic ministry in two ways. First, the heart of the dynamic itself is the close link between the Spirit's power and present weakness. We are "always carrying about in the body the dying of Jesus, that the life of Jesus might also be manifest in our mortal flesh." (2 Cor. 4:10 ) Gordon Fee comments that,

    "In Paul's view, knowing Christ means both knowing the power of His resurrection and participating in His sufferings (Phil.3:9-10). Indeed, one needs to know the former to embrace the latter." (Paul, the Spirit and the People of God, p.144).

    The heart of apostolic service is a willingness to suffer for Christ and for His people. Leaders must often take unpopular stands; if they must risk their book and tape sales by doing so, they are far less likely to tell the whole truth. If they must oppose error at personal cost, or sacrifice their time when they are tired, they pay a cost for their service.

    But it isn't only leaders who take unpopular stands; parents too must do this. Every father knows that he has gone through a stripping process in fathering where he has learned to give himself for his children, often at personal cost. Every mother who wakes up twice during the night to nurse her baby pays the cost of parenting in her body. Any time one must take an unpopular stand with a teenage daughter or son, one discovers that parenting isn't always glorious.

    Paul characterizes apostolic ministry as parenting. "For if you have many tutors in Christ, yet you do not have many fathers" (1 Cor. 4:15). Paul not only considers himself a father in Christ, but continually demonstrates this characteristic in his appeals. He will "most gladly spend and be expended for [their] souls," (2 Cor. 12:15) and he is "exhorting and imploring and encouraging each one of you, as a father would his children" (1 Thess. 2:11).

    Does this give us a clue as to the way apostolic authority is to be exercised? Certainly. But before we go there, we need to establish the context of apostolic ministry.

Many people are either unwilling or unable to suffer the pain of giving up the outgrown which needs to be forsaken. Consequently they cling, often forever, to their old patterns of thinking and behaving, thus failing to negotiate any crisis, to truly grow up and to experience the joyful sense of rebirth that accompanies the successful transition into greater maturity.
   M. Scott Peck

The Context of Apostolic Ministry

    While "the body of Christ" is the most powerful and embracing metaphor for the people that God is creating, there is another one that is equally useful: the temple of the Holy Spirit. Let's consider the apostolic ministry in those terms for a moment.

    The Lord is building a temple that He can dwell in. In our day this temple is often confused with buildings. Sadly, we centralize our life together as congregations rather than as community, and we focus on structures and programs rather than on relationships. The temple God is building, however, is a people (Eph.2:22, "a dwelling of God in the spirit"). That temple will not be established apart from right leadership and authority.

    If the heart of God's work in the world is not apostles, and not even leadership, then the point of the renewal of apostolic ministry is not authority per se, but the right and secure establishment of the entire spiritual building in relationship to the One Corner. In a sense the primary task of leadership is not to lead, but to build the foundation -- a place for the walls to rest. The foundation is there so that the walls will be strong and rightly related to the Cornerstone.

    So once again the focus is on the building, on the whole. It is "the proper working of each individual part that causes the growth of the body" (Eph. 4: 16). Where leadership and authority are constantly in focus, this will never happen, because we lose the essential nature of the church as a community.

    God is interested in releasing and establishing leaders to ensure that there is a proper place for even the most (apparently) insignificant gifting. The "weaker" are most easily neglected and lost to the Body; they are the most vulnerable. We know that God's heart is always toward the smallest and weakest among us; the Good Shepherd left the 99 to find the one who had strayed, and this father heart is a central characteristic of the true apostle.

    The misalignment of the foundation is most quickly felt and most destructive to the weaker ones. But even one stone out of place in the wall leaves an opening for the enemy. Because we are a body, the growth of one strengthens us all; the fall of one hurts us all ("if one suffers, all suffer.") The Lord is reestablishing a correct understanding of leadership so that the entire building can grow into a holy temple.

    When we were first married my wife and I traded my old clunker in for a nearly new Honda Accord. When it had a minor breakdown a year later I bought a part from an auto supply store and replaced the original part. Later when I took the car into the Honda dealership they told me I could have voided the warranty. The car was no longer in spec.

    In our modern churches we have largely imported secular models of leadership. This is like adding a non spec part to a perfect car, or like the building that is not built to code. Repairing a car properly is often more costly, but there is usually a good reason to use the manufacturers part - even when we don't know what it is. "Unless the Lord builds the house…"

    It's striking that the word Paul uses in Ephesians 4 for "equipping" the saints is the same word used in the gospels for mending a net, or for repairing a wall, or setting a broken limb. "Katartizmos" means to restore or repair so that the original function is restored. The saints are equipped when the connections are functioning and when all the needed parts are in the correct place. Leaders are equipped when they understand their own function and place in the wall.

    Leadership in many churches has mirrored leadership models of the business world. The very best of those secular models have an element of empowerment in them, particularly when those who occupy positions of authority are genuinely secure and caring individuals. On the whole, however, business models centralize authority and control, professionalize ministry and disempower the people of God. The Lord can't build his house with parts that don't fit the original model. He doesn't recognize them as His own and they don't retain the original function.

    In "Houses that Change the World," Wolfgang Simson compares exploiting leadership with empowering (fathering) leadership (page 208.)

Exploiting leadership

Empowering leadership

Give them functions

Let them function

Make them believe in you

Believe in them

Require submission

Delegate authority

Make them a part of your plans

Further God's plan for them

Use them

Invest in them

Take what they have

Give them what you have

Preach at them

Discuss with them

Require appointments

Spend time freely with them

Hold back until you retire

Give them the keys now

Let them serve you

Serve them

Accept their praise graciously

Praise them

Demonstrate master hood to them

Transfer master hood to them.

    It would be pointless to talk about gifted ministry without talking about the Giver. Many teachers have focused on the fivefold gifts of Ephesians 4 and neglected the flow and completeness of the passage. We need servants who lead, not leaders who serve! We live among a leader fixated people, in a power fixated age! We need to recapture a servant mind. Let's look more closely at Ephesians 4.

    But to each one grace was given according to the measure of Christ's gift. Therefore he says; When he ascended on high, He led captivity captive, And gave gifts to men. (Ps.68:18). (Now this, "He ascended" - what does it mean but that He also first descended into the lower parts of the earth? He who descended is also the One who ascended far above all the heavens, that He might fill all things.)

    And He Himself gave some to be apostles, some prophets, some evangelists, and some pastors and teachers, for the equipping of the saints for the work of ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ, till we all come to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the son of God, to a perfect man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ; that we should no longer be children, tossed to and fro and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the trickery of men, in the cunning craftiness of deceitful plotting, but speaking the truth in love, may grow up in all things into Him who is the head - Christ - from whom the whole body, joined and knit together by that which every joint supplies, according to the effective working by which every part does its share, causes growth of the body for the edifying of itself in love. 4:8-16

    The passage opens with relational unity in verse 2 and 3 ("unity of the Spirit," and "bearing with one another in love") and then moves immediately to a sweeping panorama of unity ("one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all.") Next Paul focuses on the victorious Giver, who "ascended on high," and moves through the listing of gifts ("he gave some to be apostles, some prophets, some evangelists and pastors and teachers.") Paul then mentions the direction of these gifts ("equipping the saints"), and ends on two notes: the functioning of the healthy community ("joined and knit together by what every joint supplies,") and the means of growth, love! The body "upbuilds itself through love," the primary task is relational and on that note Paul closes one of the most often quoted passages in the New Testament.

    Our focus has typically been the governmental function, and not the community function. In our desire to establish proper order, we have missed the flow of the passage, with Christ the Giver at the center and the outward flow of love in gifting to the body.

    Perhaps we as leaders have been too focused on our own significance in the community. Perhaps we have been pushed in that direction both by our teachers and our followers. Our culture has itself been management rather than relationship focused. Our task orientation (we leaders are mostly male) has itself pushed us away from the dimension of mystery and toward management and control.

    Larry Crabb, in his recent work, "The Safest Place on Earth," comments that we have a choice: we can be either managers or mystics. Most of us feel somewhat out of place in community: we don't always feel safe and community itself is a mystery. We prefer structures we can understand and control. The problem is, God is less interested in predictability and control than we are! Or, from another perspective, He wants to be the one in control, and He doesn't always tell us in advance what He is up to!

Almost everyone agrees that the command-and-control corporate model will not carry us into the twenty-first century. In a world of increasing interdependence and rapid change, it is no longer possible to figure it out from the top.

    In the knowledge era, we will finally have to surrender the myth of leaders as isolated heroes commanding their organizations from on high. Top-down directives, even when they are implemented, reinforce an environment of fear, distrust, and internal competitiveness that reduces collaboration and cooperation. They foster compliance instead of commitment, yet only genuine commitment can bring about the courage, imagination, patience, and perseverance necessary in a knowledge-creating organization. For those reasons, leadership in the future will be distributed among diverse individuals and teams who share responsibility for creating the organization's future.
    Peter Senge, Author of The Fifth Discipline

    Traditionally we think of fathers as the ones in charge. We picture a pyramid, with fathers on top, then mothers and children below. This is a classic image of patriarchy and it fits well with the old paradigms of management and control. Instead, let's focus on the One who is at the center.

    The "fullness of Christ" in Eph.4:13, or the "whole body working properly" of 4:16 is precisely the correct interrelation of the ministries of 4:11,12 - in line with the divine unity of 4:3-6. We have tended to individualize this, in step with our self-focused culture, by focusing on the gifts of a few or on the maturity of individual believers. The result? We have tended to make ministry into something done by the few to the many.

    But it is completely out of line with the flow of the chapter to center all this on the maturity, or status, or achievement of the individual believer. The phrases "unity of the faith," "mature humanity," and "measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ" refer to the divinely coordinated ministries of the body.

    Incredibly, it seems that it is precisely the diversity of giftings and multiplicity of ministries of the body that will bring harmony. It's a measure of our failure to attain significant relationships that we haven't come anywhere near this, and have even feared it and restrained it.

    On the other hand, our failure to be a true community has left us with the only reasonable alternative: we have become managers rather than mystics. Our failure to be a community has itself caused a retreat into structure, with an unhealthy emphasis on leadership and authority. We live with only a shadow of true community. Institutionalism is where we end up when we have failed to be a true community. Our final form of retreat is into congregations.

    If this is not true, then why do we value the working of a few gifts so much more than others? Why do we fail to create a place where all these gifts can function together, and in fact imply by our order of meeting that only a few gifts (and a few people) are really important? Jean Vanier comments,

    So we have to create structures which encourage everyone to participate, and especially the shy people. Those who have the most light to shed often dare not show it; they are afraid of appearing stupid. They do not recognize their own gift.. perhaps because others haven't recognized it either. Community and Growth

    Recently my wife traveled to a conference in the north to assist in the ministry there. Called on spontaneously to do workshops on spiritual and emotional healing, she proceeded to lead two sessions. In spite of the good things that happened, the high point was at the end of her second workshop.

    As she was finishing and women around the circle were sharing, the turn came for a young lady seated beside her. This woman was mentally challenged.

    She said, "I just came because my spiritual mother came. And I just love the Lord. And I know he is healing me because I can walk better today, and my arthritis isn't hurting me so much. And I just love Jesus and all he has done for me."

    When she shared this the Spirit suddenly came in power, and my wife found herself weeping and rejoicing in the goodness of God. God didn't need her to elaborate, and the simple words of this woman of faith said it all.

    We have much to answer for, and it's frightening! Do we think ourselves greater than God that we can neglect his sovereign will? If we haven't really seen his glory in his church, it is because we have failed to be a family and a community and have not seen the right exercise of authority to release and "equip the saints for the work of service."

To develop a broader vision we must be willing to forsake, to kill, our narrower vision. In the short run it is more comfortable not to do this - to stay where we are, to keep using the same microcosmic map, to avoid suffering the death of cherished notions. The road of spiritual growth, however, lies in the opposite direction. We begin by distrusting what we already believe, by actively seeking the threatening and unfamiliar, by deliberately challenging the validity of what we have previously been taught and hold dear. The path to holiness lies through questioning everything.
    M. Scott Peck

The Elijah Anointing : Children and Fathers

Remember the Law of Moses, My servant,
Which I commanded him in Horeb for all Israel,
With the statues and judgments.

Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet
Before the coming of the great and terrible day of the LORD.
And he will turn the hearts of the fathers to the children,
And the hearts of children to the fathers,
Lest I come and strike the earth with a curse.
Mal.4: 4-6

  And his disciples asked him, Why then do the scribes say that Elijah must come first? Jesus answered and said to them: Indeed, Elijah is coming first and will restore all things.

   But I say to you that Elijah has come already, and they did not know him but did to him whatever they wished… (He spoke to them of John the Baptist). Mt. 17:10-13

    This is a curious set of passages. Jesus is clear that John the Baptist carried the anointing of Elijah. But Jesus also implied that Elijah is yet to come. Which is it Lord?

    Thankfully, we know that the Kingdom itself is both present and yet to come. We live with a paradox, in between the times.

    Biblical scholars acknowledge that the prophecies which refer to the coming of the Messiah often have a dual fulfillment: the first fulfillment occurred with the first coming of Jesus. The meaning of the coming forerunner has the same application, and Elijah both DID come and WILL COME.

    But what does that mean for us, and how does it relate to prophetic release and the renewal of apostolic ministry?

    First, the Malachi passage itself is about authority. It begins with God calling to the remembrance of His people the Law with its statutes and ordinances. The Law reveals the character of God and is "a lamp to our feet." To be rooted in it (Ps 1) is to be fruitful.

    Biblically, renewal and revival, (except the brief "shot in the pan" variety), always coincide with a renewed zeal for the word. Elijah the prophet is not a "head in the clouds" idealist, but one who is deeply rooted in the central truths of the Gospel. All the prophets, Old Testament and New, had a deep passion for God and His word. Respect for God's word is respect for God's authority. His word (written and spoken) is life. His word sets the boundaries of creation, and establishes right from wrong (Ps.19). Apart from recognition of the word as authoritative, there is only rebellion, sickness and death. When we fail to walk in God's way we come under a curse.

    This passage is primarily about Elijah's restoration of God's authority, Elijah establishes God's rule, God's kingdom. Then turning "the hearts of fathers to the children" means that the ministry of Elijah is about the right ordering of relationships under God as King and Father. To some any discussion of authority sounds heavy. But we have to translate authority into it's New Testament context: love and relationship. The question to ask is, "When are the hearts of children alienated from fathers?"

    Around the turn of the century a British hospital was overrun with abandoned children and infants. At that time very little was known about the attachment process (ie. the later John Bowlby and his followers.) But the nurses noticed that the children who were picked up and fondled tended to thrive, while infants who received less attention were more likely to remain ill or get sicker. In fact, it was discovered that if an infant was only changed and fed but otherwise not handled, it would die.

    The hearts of children are alienated from fathers when they are either abused or neglected. Secular researchers have clearly proven that either extreme creates wounded and broken people.

    Church leaders are to exercise authority in a fathering manner. The hearts of people to fathers/leaders become alienated when authority is not exercised or not divinely given, or is improperly exercised or abused. And once this authority is lost through abuse, like the broken foundation of a building, the entire wall is broken down.

    Now the connection to apostolic ministry becomes obvious. If the ministry of Elijah is to restore all things to divine alignment, then it directly supports apostolic order. Godly authority is like a covering, and under that covering there is freedom and release. But we need to rightly understand "covering" since the term itself, like authority, is commonly abused in practice in Christian circles.

    The first implication is the right ordering of relationships. God is intensely interested in the healing of families. But families will only be as healed and whole as the leadership in our churches. When we get the foundations in order, all other things will fall into place.

    Sadly, too often authority has been positional and institutional, with institutional aims. Authority has often lacked a foundation of relationship, and consequently has not been rooted in real love and servanthood. Too many wounded leaders have used their authority to oppress rather than to release, as a service to their own egos. We desperately need leaders who are whole and healthy, free to father and empower others.

    In the same way the "covering" doctrine is often used to control people, not to release and empower them. This is always the way in unhealthy families. While the same words are used, the relational reality they express is distorted and twisted.

    Fathering authority is relational authority. As a church, we need to repent of institutional and positional authority, which has often been wielded apart from brokenness and relationship. Unless we have washed another's feet, we have no business attempting to correct them. Too often the question, "Are you under a covering?" has become an abusive ideology, aimed at expanding human kingdoms rather than at true pastoral concern. "Woe to the false shepherds who have been feeding themselves!" (Ezek. 34).

    Now consider the words of Peter in Acts quoting Joel 2:

And it shall come to pass afterward that I will pour out My Spirit on all flesh; your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, and your young men shall see visions. Even upon the menservants and maidservants in those days, I will pour out My Spirit.

    Incredibly, fathering is the foundation of this passage, often unrecognized. "My Spirit" is poured out first on "sons and daughters!" Authority in the kingdom is meant to be like authority in a family: relational, gentle and loving. Contrast this with a business model, the foundation for authority in most modern western churches.

    While secular models work fairly well when efficiency and outcomes are the primary concern, don't try this in your family! The nature of family relationships is completely different than business relationships, and the church is the family of God.

    On the other hand, even where leaders are fathers, healthy leaders alone won't build strong communities. We can have all the vaccines in the world, but unless we actually inject the sick, they will stay sick! Apostles, teachers and elders must actually build relationships of trust and caring and empower other leaders, or the people of God will remain immature and in diapers. Remember Paul's words to Timothy in 1 Timothy 3:5: "for if a man does not know how to rule his own house, how will he take care of the church of God?"

    There is probably no time in history where we were more in need of fathers. The coming generation are fatherless like none have ever been before them. The so-called "Generation X" don't trust authority and often have negative experiences of family, but they long for intimacy, they thrive on friendship, and they welcome mentors. Robert Banks in "Paul's Idea of Community" points out that Paul's entire ministry in caring for the church is like that of a father, with deep compassion, strong attachment, and great love and gentleness.

    There is no ministry to this generation apart from community, and there is no community apart from intimacy. Furthermore, intimacy is not possible until we create safe places, and safe places don't happen accidentally. They must be built with great love and great skill. In places of safety there is vulnerability, and ministry happens. And when ministry happens, Christ is revealed.

    The restoration of apostolic ministry is about extending the kingdom. Extending the kingdom involves both works of power, and building community. Is it any surprise that the NT text most commonly used to talk about community occurs in Acts 4:32 and following, where both "great power" and "great grace" are also present?

    The Lord's desire is to fill His temple, to fill His people with His Spirit. He desires to be all things to us. One of the primary reasons for the rebirth of Apostolic ministry in our day is so that the foundations of spiritual community can be strengthened. Only as churches become intimate communities in the Spirit will the world again take notice and say, "See how they love one another." The only way to propagate a message is to live it. As Jim Wallis has stated, "Community is the place where the healing of our own lives becomes the foundation for the healing of the nations" (Call to Conversion).

Next: Nehemiah and Paul - Apostolic Builders

    God is coming to the Church like a building inspector; to see if the things we have built will measure up to His code. A house can be built in many ways, and it's not uncommon for contractors to cut corners. What we deem adequate can completely fail inspection. When a building inspector determines that a house isn't up to code, the work stops. Nothing else is done until the work conforms to code.

Go to Part II <


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• © 2005 Len Hjalmarson.• Last Updated on September 9, 2005